Person A is born with Ascendant at 2 degrees in sidereal Libra (placing it in the constellation of Virgo) and Person B is born with Ascendant at 19 degrees sidereal Libra (placing it in the constellation of Libra). How different is Person A compared to Person B?
No difference at all from the constellations, because the constellations are absolutely irrelevant. To understand this more clearly, please review my video:
Of course, the two ascendants you mentioned have significant differences, but this is due to the different amśa at those degrees, not at all due at all to the constellations.
If all the planets are moving in the counterclockwise direction, why do people consider circumambulation of temple deities in clockwise motion auspicious?
When you move around something in a clockwise manner, you keep it on your right side. The right side symbolizes respect. Therefore to show respect, circumambulate the object of respect by keeping it on your right side.
In maps, we often depict the East towards the right. Why do circular charts depict the east on the left?
It is just a convention. You could do it anyway you wanted to. The convention with circular charts is that the ascendant (east) is at the 9 o’clock position. The convention with diamond charts is that it is at the 12 o’clock position. The convention with the square chart is that it is not fixed in any position.
These are just conventions. I do not know why those particular conventions became popular, and not others. Personally when I first started drawing charts, I put the ascendant on the righ (3 o’clock), and reversed everything. I liked it better. But it was too unconventional, so I switched to the more conventional charts.