1. How do you explain the exaltations and debilitations of all grahas at specific degrees ?
How does anyone explain them? They are one of the big mysteries.
You may think that nakshatras would explain them, but its not so. In fact, to correlate the nakshatras to exaltation degrees, the Indians changed a few of the exaltation degrees. I have written a little on that here: Nakshatra Exaltations?
2. How can we assign Moolatrikona signs to Grahas ?And except Mercury, why are Moolatrikona signs always the odd number signs for other Grahas excluding luminaries ?
The male sign of the planet is it’s root, because male energy is the foundation and female energy flourishes on that foundation. Mercury, being transgendered, is the exception.
3. The entire Vimsottari Dasha system will collapse using Tropical Zodiac. I see you made references to using Vimsottari system using Lahiri ayanamsa. How could you use this Dasha system which ties Nakshatra to Zodiac ?
I have no idea why you would say “the entire vimsottari dasha system will collapse using the tropical zodaic,” unless you haven’t understood the key point that nakṣatra and rāśī (stars and signs) are different. Nakshatra are not integral parts of Rāśī, and Rāśī are not integral parts of Nakṣatra. Their correlation is temporal, not permanent. The Nakshatra (“stars”) are sidereal (“stellar”) – so they are measured using ayanāṁśa. The Rashi (“signs”) are tropical (“relative to the equatorial movement of the sun”), so they are the basis of ayanāṁśa, not the object affected by it.
3b) If one is born with Moon in Cancer at 13° tropically, we align the Zodiac to a Sidereal star using certain ayanamsa, get the Moon’s Sidereal position of 19° Gemini. At this point, we correlate this degree to Ardra Nakshatra to get the Dasha at birth. Which means, we are assuming that Ardra Nakshatra is in Gemini. Why are we doing this ? Which Vedic text is telling us that Moon is Gemini relates to Ardra Nakshatra ?
“19º Gemini” is a more convenient way of saying 79º, Just as “two hours 17 minutes” is a more convenient way of saying “137 minutes.”
“The Moon at 13º tropical Cancer is at 19º sidereal Gemini” is the same as saying the Moon at 103º tropical is at 79º sidereal.
Divide that by 13.3 and you will find that it has gone through 5 segments and is almost through the sixth, thus it is in the sixth nakshatra, Ārdrā.
3c) In your response, you mentioned that Ardra is the sixth Nakshatra. Which means, you are starting from Aswini Nakshatra. Now my question is why are you aligning the Tropical Zodiac to the beginning of Aswini Nakshatra for the purpose of Vimsottara Dasha system ? Shouldn’t we be aligning Tropical Zodiac to the beginning of Kritika Nakshatra? Wouldn’t that make a difference in which Dasha Vimsottari Cycle begins ?
You can start wherever you want, just modify your ayanāṁśa definition accordingly. I start with Aśviṇī only out of convention, because that is where most all the ayanāṁśa are targeted.
For example, citrapakṣa (“lahiri”) ayanāṁśa defines a 114º06′ aṁśa from the ayana (solstice) to the beginning of Aśviṇī as the current value. If you want Kṛttikā to begin, your definition of the ayanāṁśa will just change by 26º40′, so it would be 87º14′ from the ayana to the beginning of Kṛttikā. Nothing is really changing except your reference point, which is just a descriptor. Nothing real changes, only the nomenclature of the descriptors.